The industry of making confectionaries (ειδη περιπτερου ), like numerous various other markets, has actually transformed considerably over the last few years. Although the basic formulas have actually gone through small adjustments, the manufacturing innovations have changed significantly (this uses specifically to the techniques of developing tiny products and also floor tiles, as well as their packaging).
At the beginning of this chapter, it seems appropriate to mention only these adjustments, yet extra on those later put on certain recipes.
Various groups of confectionery products call for details molding techniques to ensure that they can be wrapped and also packaged in the most suitable way available. Probably one of the most effective development was the pastry bar. These bars enable you to use cost-efficient methods of manufacturing, product packaging and screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were visible enhancements in the product packaging – both in the materials used and also in the sealing techniques. A lot of benches in order to guarantee long service life, to protect against insect damage and contamination call for protective product packaging. We take into consideration these consider different phases.
We have actually currently thought about the production of delicious chocolate, and as a result it is clear that delicious chocolate and complicated glazes have a predominantly fatty basis, their wetness content is extremely low (normally less than 1%), as well as the components are not in aqueous service.
In several confectionery processes, the dissolving capability of sugar (sucrose) is considered independently or in combination with various other sugars, such as sugar syrup (corn syrup) and invert sugar. There are 2 major groups of sugar confectionery items: a) items in which sugar is entirely dissolved, as well as b) items in which sugar is partially dissolved, and partly present in the form of small strong crystals suspended in solution. These items may be changed with other active ingredients (for example, milk as well as fats). The first group consists of hard candy, hard as well as soft milk desserts, toffee and also most jelly sweets. The 2nd team consists of items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and nougat with an obvious fine-crystalline structure.
Summary confectionery manufacturing technologies
Below we will see that all the variety of structures acquired is a result of using different technical procedures and also formulations, every one of which require special techniques for the formation of individual products. Here we check out general modern technology problems, as well as see their specific usages in various other areas of this publication.
Smearing and reducing
The maker is outfitted with cooled down rolls, which enable you to feed the item directly from the tool, where it is prepared, to the plate developing devices. After molding as well as lamination, the plates are fed to a cooling tool, and then to standard reducing tools and also spreaders. After that the items are polished.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is most likely the oldest technique of creating bars (floor tiles) and also private products from plastic products such as fudge, nougat and different pastes. A confectionery product in a proper plastic state, established by its wetness, fat content or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to obtain a plate of the needed density. This plate is after that fed to cutting gadgets to generate wide strips, which are then cut into slim floor tiles or bars. Presently, the hot item is fed to cooled down rolls, permitting to obtain multilayer plates. The plates are continuously cut into strips that travel through the (” spreading out maker)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or small pieces. An example of such a procedure is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This technique is used for the manufacturing of candies, fondant as well as jelly candies, some kinds of milk sweets as well as fudge, marshmallows and also various other items that can be gotten in fluid type.
Some items in liquid type might be formed at a temperature level of concerning 150 ° C in a steel mold and mildew whose surface is covered with a “lube”.
Pomadnye, želejnye sweet, maršmellou.
These products are typically cast right into cells created in starch (see listed below the area “Fondant coverings”). An extra recent development is the automatic rainfall and removal of fondant shells and some other confectionery items making use of steel molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), in addition to the precipitation of caramel and toffee right into silicone molds (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has unique residential properties and also is immune to fairly high temperatures, typical for the production of caramel confectionery.
This method uses virtually specifically to sweet caramel and some sorts of toffee. The typical flavorful candies, desserts with a filler and also “toffee” are made.
The manufacturing principle is to cool down the brewed syrup under regulated problems till it reaches a ductile state. In this state, the item is transformed into a sort of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the completed products (usually of a certain form or with a pattern) are acquired from it. The resulting items are instantly sent to the cooling cabinet as well as wrapping device.
To obtain some kinds of sugar and crunchy sweets, a variation of this method is used, in which the harness acquired in a similar method is fed to a cutting-wrapping equipment, where with the help of high-speed circular blades, small items are reduced from it that pertained to the covering maker.
Extrusion and also molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, carried out in the production of many non-food items, has been efficiently used in the confectionery industry. The application of this procedure to the manufacturing of different products– from soft materials such as marshmallows as well as fondant sweets to really plastic nougat and also milk chocolates– is described in  In this situation, the material subjected to extrusion is fed to the electrical outlet nozzles with the help of numerous rolls or augers. The nozzle hole account establishes the form of the end product, as well as several extruders are geared up with a number of nozzles that develop harnesses that can be cut into bars or little items. In fig. 19.2 shows different rolls for extruders, as well as fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder sample with a device for removing tiny pieces from the strands. In fig. 19.4 shows the design of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of chewing periodontal and eating sweet.
The design of the NID bar extruder is slightly different. The feeding is accomplished by grooved rollers similarly as in various other extruders, but the product to be created is fed to a second profile roller. The profiled surface of the roll is coated with fluoroplastic to make sure easy separation of the product and is used to shape benches into the needed form. The pins assist eliminate the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which two layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from an additional confectionery item. Extrusion functions well with other continual manufacturing as well as glazing methods.
When extrusion confectionery must observe certain precautions.
Temperature. The extrusion temperature is of essential value, specifically in the case of milk sweet as well as nougat, the consistency of which is very depending on temperature. Little variations in temperature can lead to big modifications in extrusion pressure. For soft milk sweets, a temperature level of 35 to 38 ° C is normally utilized, however much depends upon the sort of item, and also the exact temperature.
Excursion conditions have to be identified empirically. Low temperatures and high pressures create knockout of extruder safety plugs.
Splitting up of fat … If fat separates during extrusion, this suggests inadequate emulsification. Improvement is achieved when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the formulation.
Damage after extrusion … After extrusion, some products lose their form, and also the strip, which is practically round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip may come to be visibly flatter. This results from a number of factors:.
too high a dampness web content;.
It was not emulsified fat and may be too soft;.
the protein of any type of dairy active ingredient is not correctly distributed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline structure has developed or has actually been damaged by too much stirring after crystal formation. This issue can be really subtle, as well as in continual fudge production, its look depends on the moment the crystallizing lipstick is included prior to extrusion. It is feasible to establish the optimal problems for a particular devices only experimentally. Firms specializing in the production of extrusion tools have actually accomplished a large amount of research in the style of devices for the extrusion of confectionery items of different consistencies. For some items – such as gummies as well as chewing gum tissue – the roll extruder is paving the way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These modern technologies are explained in other sections of guide.
The concept of panning is currently defined in Phase 5. There are two sorts of sugar rolling – hard as well as loose. With difficult knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar and syrup are built up on the desired body (for instance, nuts) and dried out with warm air death between the applied layers. Loose knurling is accomplished in a similar way, yet using cold technology. Soft shells are utilized (as an example, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling up), and the layer is made of sugar (or sugar) syrup as well as powdered sugar. After reaching the preferred size and weight of the covering, the sweets are partially dried and covered with polish. The process is completely mechanized, consisting of loading as well as dumping the tanks, automated splashing of syrups (or chocolate), as well as control of drying or cooling down air to the storage tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, glucose or corn syrup and invert sugar is usually denoted in English by the word “creme” (cream), but some traditional items utilize the option “cream”, as well as in various countries it is called differently.
The fondant is prepared by dissolving sugar as well as sugar syrup (or invert sugar) in water as well as concentrating by steaming to a service including concerning 88% DM. At ambient temperature, this solution is supersaturated with sugar as well as unpredictable, and if it is quickly mixed as well as cooled, after that the excess sugar falls out of the service in the form of little crystals. Therefore, the fondant mass has a solid stage of sugar crystals put on hold in a fluid stage containing a saturated solution of “sugars”.
Without mixing and cooling down huge crystals are created. Beating in itself offers unsatisfactory outcomes, since a large amount of latent heat of formation is launched. If the whipped syrup is left hot, crystallization decreases and subsequent slow-moving cooling brings about the formation of large crystals. Fondant of high quality should be soft in consistency.
At first, lipstick was prepared making use of only sugar, which was liquified in water and concentrated by steaming to regarding the level of 88-90% ST. Given that the solubility of sugar at regular temperature levels is only 67%, the syrup with a concentration of 90% is extremely unstable and also crystallizes upon fast cooling, “providing” large crystals.
To overcome this drawback, an additive was made use of that triggered the inversion of a part of the sugar and raised the total solubility – this made it feasible to whip the syrup right into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, much more ideally, tartar (tartaric acid) are made use of therefore ingredients. The development of invert sugar from sugar is talked about in one more phase, however below we just note that such additives decompose part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, into two monosaccharides, dextrose (sugar) and also fructose. Fructose is far more soluble (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and also its presence with dextrose enables the concentrated syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This technique of application of the additive is extremely unstable, because the amount of invert sugar created varies significantly relying on the purity of the sugar, the boiling time as well as the solidity of the water used. Finest outcomes are obtained by adding to the sugar syrup a certain amount of invert sugar, prepared independently.
Lipstick, made from sugar and also invert sugar, has a granular structure and also is extremely wonderful in taste (it is hardly ever used in modern-day confectionery manufacturing). Glucose (corn) syrup has changed invert sugar in lipstick solutions; it is much less sweet, as well as the presence of complex carbohydrates controls the formation of crystals and also gives a more viscous lipstick, which does not have a loose (brittle) structure.